Palma de Mallorca (officially:Palma) is the capital of the Autonomous Community of the Balearic Islands. It is situated on the island of Mallorca and is the largest city of the archipelago with 401,270 inhabitants (2009 census).
In Mallorca the Romans founded a provincial town with the name of “Palma” in 123 BC .This city plausibly corresponds with the Roman ruins which are now located under the historic centre of Palma, although there exists still no irrefutable proof of this. Alcantara Peña was the first to point out this location,while until now it was believed that the former Palma could have been located in areas of Sa Carrotja (Ses Salines) or in S’Horta de’n Palmer (Campos), due to the discovery of the remains of a necropolis as well as remains of pottery, stone and funeral urns.
Only the name is known with certainty from the Muslim period, when it was called Madina Mayurqa. With the conquest by James I in 1229 the name was translated into Ciutat de Mallorca. After Mallorca lost the Spanish Succession War, one of the measures imposed by the Decretos de Nueva Planta of Felipe V, was the recovery of the Roman name of Palma. The city is usually called “Palma de Mallorca”, especially by people outside of Mallorca and the name has been even used in official documents of the municipality of Palma.
However, according to a report of the municipal archivist, the city never changed the official name, and has never officially carried the addition of Mallorca thus is officially Palma. Due to various circumstances, mostly political, the registro de Entitades Locales of the ministerio de Administraciones Publicas continued to use the name “Palma de Mallorca” until it was finally corrected in October 2008. Note that it is a fairly common error to name the entire island of Mallorca ,“Palma de Mallorca”.
Because of the names of the two most important Roman towns in Mallorca, Palma and Pollentia, scholars have given them “militaristic,triumphalist, etc..”connotations; interpreting “Palma” as “victory palm” and connecting it to”Pollentia” which means “superiority”, “power”, although the relationship between the two names could be of a completely different nature.
The town of Palma has a surface area of 20,863 hectares and is bordered by the towns of Calvia, Puigpunyent, Esporles, Valldemosa, Bunyola, Marratxí, Santa Eugenia, Algaida and Llucmajor, apart from the sea.
The sub-archipelago of Cabrera , comprising the islands of Cabrera, Conillera, Imperial, Rodona, Foradada, Plana, Pobre and other minor islets, resorts under the municipality of Palma.
Palma is dominated by its coast, its beaches and its ports.
Palma has a moderate Mediterranean climate with an average annual temperature of 19 ° C and an average annual precipitation of 410 mm. The coldest month is January with 15.1 / 3.5 ° C and the warmest month is August with 31.0 / 18.2 ° C. There are 51 days of rain per year and 2756 hours of sunshine. It has been snowing on rare occasions, the most remarkable were in 2005 (1-2 cm of snow), in 1985 (1 cm of snow) and in 1956 (40 cm in the centre of Palma, something very unusual).